Management & Administration
Administration means overall determination of policies, setting of major objectives, the identification of general purposes and lying down of broad programmes and projects. It refers to the activities of higher level. It lays down basic principles of the enterprise. In a sentence, Administration means guidance, leadership & control of the efforts of the groups towards some common goals.

Whereas, management involves conceiving, initiating and bringing together the various elements; coordinating, actuating, integrating the diverse organizational components while sustaining the viability of the organization towards some pre-determined goals. In other words, It is an art of getting things done through & with the people in formally organized groups
The difference between Management and Administration can be summarized under 2 categories.
1.Functions 2. Applicability
1.Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals.
2. Management is an executing function.
3. Management decides who should as it & how should he do it.
4.Management is a doing function,because managers get work done under their supervision.
5.Technical and Human skills.
6. Middle & Lower level function.
7.It is applicable to business concerns i.e. profit-making organization.
8.The management decisions are influenced by the values, opinions, beliefs & decisions of the managers.
9.Management constitutes the employees of the organization who are paid remuneration(in the form of salaries & wages).
1.Administration concerned with formulation of broad objectives, plans & policies.
2.Administration is a decision making function.
3. Administration decides what is to be done & when it is to be done.
4.Administration is a thinking function,because plans & policies are determined under it.
5.Conceptual and Human skills.
6.Top level function.
7.It is applicable to non-business concerns i.e. clubs,schools,hospitals etc.
8.The administration is influenced by public opinion, government policies,religious organizations,customers etc.
9. Administration represents owners of the enterprise who earn return on their capital invested & profits in the form of dividend.
Practically, there is no difference between management & administration. Every manager is concerned with both - administrative management function and operative management function as shown in the figure. However, the managers who are higher up in the hierarchy denote more time on administrative function & the lower level denote more time on directing and controlling worker's performance i.e. management.
Levels of Management
The term"Levels of Management" refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories:-
1.Top level/ Administrative level
2.Middle level/ Executory
3.Low level/ Supervisory/ Operative/ First-line managers
1.Top Level of Management
It consists of board of directors, chief executive or managing director. The top management is the ultimate surce of authority and it manages goals and policies for an enterprise. it devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions.
a. Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies s of the enterprise.
b. It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc.
c. It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise.
d. It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers.
e. It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments.
f. It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world.
g. It provides guidance and direction.
h. The top management it also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.
2.Middle Level of Management
The branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of middle level of management but in big enterprises, there may be senior and junior middle level management. Their role can be emphasized as.
a. They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management.
b. They make plans for the sub-units of the organization.
c. They participate in employment & training of lower level management.
d. They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level.
e. They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department.
f. It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management.
g. They evaluate performance of junior managers.
h. They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards towards better performance.
3.Lower Level of Management
Lower level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. Supervisors management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees. In order words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management.
Their activities include-
a. Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers.
b. They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities.
c. They are responsible for the equality as well as quantity as well as quantity of production.
d. They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in the organization.
e. They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and re-commendatory appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers.
f. They help to solve the grievances of the workers.
g. They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates.
h. They are responsible for providing training to the workers.
i. They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc for getting the things done.
j. They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers.
k. They ensure discipline in the enterprise.
l. They motivate workers.
m. They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact with the workers.
Functions of Management
Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manager irrespective of his level or status.
Different experts have classified functions of management. But the most widely accepted functions of management are 1.Planning 2.Organizing 3.Staffing 4.Directing 5.Controlling.
It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be". A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, It is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.
It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel's". To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:
5. Controlling
It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation. Controlling is the measurment & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished. Therefore controlling has following steps:

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